a. Site selection.
(1) Near signal and recovery site.
(2) Available food and water.
(3) Avoid natural hazards:
[a] - Dead standing trees.
(4) Location large and level enough to lie down in.
[b] - Drainage and dry river beds except in combat areas.
[c] - Avalanche areas.
(1) Immediate shelters. Find shelter needing minimal improvements (Figure VI-4).
c. Shelter construction.
Figure VI-4. Immediate Shelters
(2) General shelter. Temperate climates require any shelter that gives protection from wind and rain.
(3) Thermal A Frame, Snow Trench, Snow Cave. (Figures VI-5 through VI-7). Cold climates require an enclosed, insulated shelter.
[a] - Snow is the most abundant insulating material.
[b] - Air vent is required to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning when using an open flame inside enclosed shelters.
Figure VI-5. Thermal A Frame
Figure VI-6. Snow Trench
Figure VI-7. Snow Cave
(4) 4) Shade shelter. Hot climates require a shade shelter to protect from ultraviolet rays (Figure VI-8)
[a] - To reduce the surface temperature, the shelter floor should be elevated or dug down (approximately 18 inches).
(5) Elevated platform shelter (Figure VI-9). Tropical/wet climates require enclosed, elevated shelter for protection from dampness and insects.
[b] - For thermal protection, a minimum of 2 layers of material suspended 12-18 inches above the head is required. White is the best color to reflect heat (inner most layer should be of darker material).
(1) Have entrance 45-90 degrees from prevailing wind.
d. Shelter construction materials:
(2) Cover with available material.
[a] - If natural materials are used, arrange them in layers starting at the bottom with each layer overlapping the previous one. See Figure VI-10 for an example.
Figure VI-8. Poncho/Parachute Shade Shelter
Figure VI-9. Elevated Platform Shelter
Figure VI-10. Shingle Method
[b] - If using porous material like parachute, blankets, etc.—Stretch as tight as possible, Use a 40–60 degree slope, · Use additional layers in heavy rain.
(1) Raft and raft parts.
e. Bed construction. Construct a bed to protect from cold, damp, ground using—
(2) Vehicle or aircraft parts.
(3) Blankets, poncho, or parachute material.
(4) Sheet of plastic or plastic bag.
(5) Bark peeled off dead trees.
(6) Boughs, broad leaves, dry moss.
(7) Grass and sod.
(9) Sand and rocks.
(1) Raft or foam rubber from vehicle seats.
(2) Boughs, leaves, or dry moss.